onbekende ; lichaamsvorm ; sierbanden
onbekende ; lichaamsvorm ; sierbanden
The exterior aspect of this mummy carefully reproduces a body with all limbs clearly visible, the arms pressed against the sides with outstretched fingers. The facial features and ears have been modelled to regain their natural aspect and are covered by a single piece of fine linen, onto which the details have been painted: black for the eyebrows and the rims, irises, and crow's feet of the eyes; red for a dot on the forehead and on the chin, the corners of the eyes, the folds of the upper eyelids, the nostrils, the lips and curved lines in the corners of the mouth, and the details of the ears (which rather look like leaf patterns). Above, this sheet of linen (with at least one further layer below) is secured by a doubled band of linen (width 1.5 cm) around the forehead; the top of the head has not been wrapped and shows the close-cropped natural hair (reddish and fairly long), the skin, and parts of the bare skull. Two bands of linen (4.7 cm wide) lie over the shoulders and form a 'collar' in front, the right slip folded over the left one. These bands have been painted in red, yellow, and white on a dark brown waxed or varnished ground (the same colour scheme as all bands of this mummy): a central frieze of alternating oval and rhomboid medallions (doubtless imitating a string of semiprecious stones mounted in gold), surrounded by yellow dots and curls, and flanked by two lines of a guilloche pattern and plain framing bands. The lower edge of this collar band is accompanied by a thin strip of plain doubled linen, stained by resin.
The front of the torso and the thighs is covered by a single sheet of fine linen (warp-faced tabby weave, 13 x 38 threads/cm2), wrapped around the sides and leaving a gap along the centre of the back. Through this gap one may see the irregular strata of narrow transverse bandages and coarse linen underneath. This sheet is tucked in between the thighs. On the chest lies a strange rectangular frame of palm-ribs wrapped with strips of papyrus rind, slightly curved in order to fit onto the body. A single 'brace' of waxed and painted linen runs vertically over the right shoulder (width 2.7 cm, similar medallion motive on dark ground without framing bands). There is a 12.5 cm wide girdle of painted linen between two plain doubled strips (four rows of medallions with lines of guilloche in between, no framing bands, left end with vertical rows, right end lost). A damaged spot in the girdle allows a view of the navel area underneath, which appears to be recessed. A similar band (width 5.2 cm) lies across the knees, tucked in between the legs: a central rosette is flanked by two large 'jewels' in rectangular mounts over the knee-caps, followed by rows of guilloche, slanted strips, and more medallions. There is a plain linen band below.
The lower legs are separately wrapped in bleached linen 'stockings'. Painted bands (width 4.7 cm) have been applied just above the ankles, with the same pattern as on the collar. These are accompanied above and below by plain doubled strips, each with a second even narrower strip of bleached linen along the centre. Two tabs of painted linen protrude over the lower end of the shins. The feet are covered in plain linen, with more or less square appliques of painted linen on the insteps (guilloche and medallion, framed in red), secured by a narrow band with slanted strip-pattern on the left foot, and set off from the toes by triple transverse strips. The toes are shown as individual rolls of cloth, with thin strips pressed down in between. The toenails have been applied as tiny folded pieces of dark-stained linen. Soles of painted linen were fixed under the feet (three transverse rows of medallions between red frames, large rosettes on the heels), with plain bands around the front edges and diagonally over the heels.
The arms are wrapped in sheets of plain linen, with separate pieces covering the tips of the shoulders (set off against the torso by vertical strips). There are painted bands just below the armpits (width 6.4 cm, two rows of medallions, plain strip above), just above the elbows (width 7 cm, single range of medallions between framing bands, plain strips above and below), and above the wrists (width 5.1 cm, single ranges of medallions between slanted strip pattern and roundels, plain strips above and below), with two small rectangular appliques on the forearms. The hands are wrapped in narrow concentric bandages applied in spiral fashion from the palms of the hands upwards. The fingers are wrapped individually, with dark-stained nails indicated.
Inventarisnummer: AMM 24-a
Objectnaam: mummie; kind
Materiaal: mummie ; linnen
Afmetingen: 19,5 x 34 x 130 cm
Periode: Grieks-Romeinse Periode; Romeinse keizertijd; 3e eeuw
Leemans, Description raisonnée (1840) M 79
Boeser, Catalogus (1907) E.XLIII.19
P.H.K. Gray, OMRO 47 (1966), nr. 16
M.J. Raven, Mummies onder het mes (Amsterdam 1993), afb. 112
R.J. Jansen e.a., Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics 26 (2002), 211-216 en fig. 3a
M.J. Raven/W.K. Taconis, Egyptian mummies (Turnhout 2005), nr. 30
M.J. Raven, in: D. Magee/J. Bourriau/S. Quirke (red.), Studies J. Malek (Leuven 2009),
464 n. 6
C. Greco, Mòmies Egípcies, El Secret de la Vida Eterna (2012), 68
J.H. Taylor//D. Antoine, Ancient lives, new discoveries (Londen 2014), fig. 159